Learn how (and why) the industry's leading CBD companies are using CO2 extraction to create the safest and most potent range of products. How is CBD extracted from the hemp plant, and can you make your own CBD-infused oil at home? Read our CBD extraction guide to find out.
CO2 Extraction for CBD Oil: What It Is and How it Works
One of the most important considerations one must make when searching for a quality CBD brand is the method of extraction the brand uses to make its products. For CBD users that don’t want to run the risk of ingesting solvent residue and other chemicals, purchasing from brands that use CO2 extraction is ideal. This process is entirely solventless and results in pure, high-quality CBD products that work.
What Is CO2 Extraction?
CO2 extraction uses pressurized carbon dioxide to “pull” naturally occurring phytocompounds (including cannabinoids and terpenes) from raw hemp plant material. In the end, CBD oils made using CO2 extraction have a healthy-looking amber color to them – verifying a full spectrum of beneficial hemp compounds.
Manufacturers use carbon dioxide because it is a versatile, tunable substance. It acts as a solvent at a specific temperature and pressure range, but it doesn’t have the dangers associated with other chemical solvents like butane and hexane. As a result, consumers benefit from premium-quality, clean oils with no toxic by-products.
Few people know that CO2 is a common supplementary ingredient in foods and beverages. For example, if you drink soda or sparkling water, it is the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) that gives the drink its fizz.
Explaining CO2 Supercritical Extraction
Although there are other methods, supercritical CO2 extraction is widely regarded as the industry’s gold standard for making top-quality CBD products. The term supercritical refers to the way in which carbon dioxide acts as a gas at standard temperatures and pressures, but acts as a liquid at high temperatures and pressures.
CO2’s Supercritical Region
Here is a quick step-by-step guide to supercritical CO2 extraction:
- The extractor takes CO2 in its gaseous form and runs it through a sealed chamber. At this stage, the CO2 is subject to heightened pressure and temperatures as low as -70 degrees Fahrenheit.
- The gas changes into a liquid.
- Once reheated and pressurized, CO2 showcases its unique properties. A supercritical fluid has properties between a gas and a liquid. For example, it maintains the density of a liquid while filling space like a gas.
- The special fluid moves through a chamber that contains raw hemp material.
- The fluid then passes through the raw material and dissolves the trichomes’ membranes. As a result, the process captures a significant proportion of the active compounds.
A supercritical system produces a thick substance with a consistency akin to that of peanut butter. This is because the higher temperatures and pressures extract larger molecules, including waxes, chlorophyll, and omega-3 and 6 lipids. However, the process of winterization removes these substances, leaving behind the cannabinoid oil only.
Some companies also use subcritical CO2 extraction. This isn’t as common a method as supercritical, mainly because it takes more time, is more expensive, and produces less material. Subcritical is a similar process to supercritical, except it relies on lower pressures and lower temperatures. Subcritical extraction produces a material with a consistency similar to molasses.
Benefits of CO2 Extraction
One of the primary benefits of making hemp extract using CO2 extraction is its status as a ‘green solvent.’ For CBD products, the use of carbon dioxide provides a cleaner, healthier product. Unlike solvents such as butane and hexane, CO2 extraction contains no solvents or chemical residues. It is also recyclable and better in the long run for the planet.
The Entourage Effect
That being said, perhaps the biggest benefit of CO2 extraction is its capacity to extract dozens of cannabinoids and terpenes. The hemp plant has over 100 identified cannabinoids, as well as hundreds of terpenes, flavonoids, and beneficial omega acids. When all of these different phytocompounds are combined in a single product together, experts believe the range of benefits is amplified compared to products that contain CBD isolate only.
This phenomenon is known as the entourage effect. While high-quality CBD isolate certainly has its uses, full-spectrum products are generally believed to be more effective for a range of uses.
For example, cannabinoids such as cannabinol (CBN) and cannabigerol (CBG) are not as abundant as CBD, but they potentially have health benefits of their own. Then there is the small matter of terpenes. For example, alpha-pinene and myrcene are thought to promote relaxation. When compounds like these are filtered off and excluded from CBD oil, users are missing out on a range of potential benefits.
Where to Find CO2 Extracted CBD Products
Luckily for consumers, CO2 extracted CBD oils and other products are easy to find. At Premium Jane, our entire CBD range is crafted using this method. While it may be expensive, it’s essential for us to maintain industry-leading standards so that our customers can source safe, effective, versatile hemp extract.
The complete Premium Jane range incorporates a variety of CBD tinctures, gummies, topicals, and even hygiene products such as CBD bath bombs. In this way, customers are not restricted to traditional products.
Additionally, consumers can view our Certificates of Analysis (COAs) to see that our entire product line is free from toxins and harmful solvent-based ingredients. In addition to verifying cannabinoid content, COAs are crucial for ensuring the absence of microbes, pesticides, and heavy metals. All lab reports are published in full on our official site.
Final Thoughts on CO2 Extraction
CBD products made using quality CO2 extraction techniques typically contain a full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes; meaning amplified health benefits for the user. Also, CO2 extraction methods typically result in an end product that is cleaner, safer, and more environmentally conscious than solvent-based counterparts.
To browse some of the best-rated, highest quality CO2-extracted products online, be sure to shop the official Premium Jane online store and place your order today.
CBD Extraction: CO2, Steam Distillation, and More
We’d like to thank CBDfx and Natural Hemp Solutions for supplying us with images of the processes used in their labs.
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is an organic compound that is found in the cannabis plant, with the flowers of the hemp plant being the richest source. And in order for CBD to be added to a wide array of consumer products—think CBD oil, lotions, topicals, or CBD vape juice—the first step that manufacturers need to take is to extract it from the plant.
This guide will present the various CBD extraction methods, essentially explaining how full-spectrum CBD oil is obtained from the CBD strains of cannabis. Some of these methods have been used in various industries for decades or even centuries, far before CBD oil was even a thing. Examples include essential oil extraction, decaffeination (and caffeine extraction) of coffee beans, and even beer production. In all cases, the idea is the same: how to extract a valuable resource out of plant material.
If you are interested in the ins and outs of CBD extraction from cannabis strains high in CBD, here’s a breakdown of the most commonly used CBD methods.
Supercritical CO2 extraction
The word “supercritical” sounds real fancy, but it is actually a term that’s very commonly used in chemistry. Simply put, a substance in its supercritical state possesses characteristics of both a gas and a liquid.
When supercritical CO2 is used in CBD extraction, its gas properties allow it to effuse through all plant matter, while its liquid properties allow it to extract compounds efficiently. The exact process varies, and some labs start the extraction with liquid CO2 while others start with CO2 in gas form. In both cases, manufacturers add CO2 in a chamber that includes plant material and use the exact amounts of pressure and temperature needed for CO2 to reach its supercritical state. At this point, and with the help of some additional heat, CO2 acts as a solvent and causes the plant material to separate, carrying with it all the essential compounds. Once done, CO2 is separated from the organic compounds, and manufacturers are left with full-spectrum CBD oil.
While it requires qualified personnel and there are higher costs associated with the equipment needed for supercritical CO2 extraction, it is by far the most efficient and quickest method to extract CBD. It is also environmentally friendly due to the limited amount of emissions, and safer than extractions that use certain solvents as CO2 is “generally regarded as safe” by the FDA.
- The most efficient method
- CO2 is regarded as generally safe
- Quick (once everything is in place)
- Environmentally safe
- Expensive (equipment costs)
- Needs qualified personnel
Steam distillation is a centuries-old process that’s commonly used to distill alcohol as well as extract essential oils from organics. The process is much less complicated than CO2 CBD extraction. First, plant matter is introduced in a distillation tank. With the use of water and heat, the produced steam carries oils to the top of the tank, and it is then passed through a condenser, resulting in a mix of water and oil. The mix then goes through further distillation to separate water and oil, and the result is full-spectrum CBD oil.
While this CBD extraction process is much simpler, there are some downfalls. It is more prone to error, much less efficient, and may potentially damage part of the essential oil profile of the plant. Due to these reasons, steam distillation is very rarely used to extract CBD nowadays, but many labs still use some type of distillation in the process of isolating CBD from full-spectrum oil.
- Relatively easy to perform
- Low cost
- Not very efficient
- Not consistent
- Resulting CBD oil is less potent
This method is also centuries old and is somewhat of a middle point between CO2 extraction and steam distillation when it comes to complexity and efficiency. It bears many similarities to CO2 extraction, albeit without the advanced methodology that’s behind the “supercritical” part.
In layman’s terms, this type of extraction involves mixing plant material with some type of solvent that will carry the essential oils given the right conditions and enough time. Some of the most popular natural solvents are alcohol (ethanol) and natural plant oils (including olive oil), with alcohol being much more efficient in dissolving the plant’s compounds. But due to the higher cost associated with ethanol, many manufacturers choose to go with synthetic solvents (hydrocarbons like butane or hexane), which may end up in lower quality, or even CBD oil that’s unfit for consumption if they’re not removed properly from the final product.
Solvent extraction is a delicate CBD extraction process and its pros and cons, as well as the consistency of the resulting oil, varies greatly depending on the solvent used. It can be more efficient than steam distillation if performed properly, but it carries a lot of risk and most labs choose CO2 extraction if they can afford it.
- More efficient than steam distillation
- Can be performed with natural oils
- Relatively safe if natural oils are used
- Varied results in final product
- Not as efficient as CO2 extraction
- Synthetic solvents are dangerous to handle
- Synthetic solvents need to be completely removed from final product
How to extract CBD at home
At this point, you may be wondering if there’s any way you can extract CBD at the comfort of your own home. The short answer is “yes”, but it really depends on how willing you are to do further research. The following is not going to be a real step-by-step guide, but it can serve as a starting point and give you some basic guidelines.
Olive oil extraction
Possibly the simplest way to extract CBD oil, as it only requires some CBD-rich bud, olive oil, and some basic kitchen equipment to ensure a steady supply of heat. If you’ve ever made cannabutter, then technically you have already utilized this method before. The only difference in this case, is that you are using hemp and olive oil—but olive oil can easily be swapped out for the oil or butter of your choice. This includes regular butter, coconut oil, hempseed oil, etc.
The first step for olive oil extraction is decarboxylation, i.e. activation of the compounds of plant material with the use of heat (there’s more info in the following section). Trimmed hemp flower in an oven tray heated between 240 and 280°F (115-135°C) for up to an hour should do the trick. Once this step is taken care of, the resulting activated cannabis is mixed with olive oil and heated at low temperature (ideally in a double boiler) for around two hours. The only thing left to do at this point is to use a filter to strain the mixture and separate the oil from the plant material. The result: CBD-infused olive oil.
While this is the easiest and least risky way to extract CBD oil, it is certainly not the most efficient. As with most DIY projects, there’s always room for user error. But even if you do everything right, you are going to sacrifice a large part of the organic compounds of the plant and you will produce less potent oil than a lab would. For these reasons, extracting CBD at home is an interesting experiment, but if you want to reap all the benefits of CBD it is advisable to get it from a reputable source instead.
Activation and purification
While technically not steps of CBD extraction, activation of active organic compounds and purification of CBD oil are two processes that are very important in CBD production. The most common methods used for these purposes are decarboxylation and winterization.
The active organic compounds of the cannabis plant come in their acidic forms. In order to go from THCA and CBDA to THC and CBD, manufacturers need to apply heat and decarboxylate the compounds—that’s the lab equivalent to lighting up a joint. Heat removes a carbon molecule from the organic compounds and turns them into their active counterparts.
Decarboxylation may take place before or after the extraction, and the exact methodology followed is highly dependent on this choice. But it is an essential part of the CBD oil production process, as non-activated compounds have little to no effect on the user.
While not as essential as carboxylation, winterization is a very common process that ensures that the final product of the extraction is as pure as possible. Simply put, the process of winterization employs solvents (usually ethanol) and low temperatures to ensure that lipids and other impurities are removed from an oil extract. This takes place as one of the final steps before full spectrum oil is obtained.
Winterization is not always performed, but it is a very important process when the final product is intended to be vaped. Some terpenes and other compounds are also filtered out during this process, but many manufacturers choose to add terpenes to their CBD oil after winterization.
CBD extraction: the takeaway
These are the most commonly used CBD extraction methods and, as expected, each comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. The main takeaway from this guide should be that the reason you may have seen “supercritical CO2 extraction” in ads and promotions is not just that it sounds cool (although it does!) Simply put, CO2 extraction is by far the cleanest and most efficient CBD extraction method—and a no-brainer for any lab that can actually afford it.
This doesn’t mean that all CO2-extracted CBD products are better by definition. But if a lab invests in the equipment that’s required for the most technically demanding extraction method, chances are that they know what they are doing. When in doubt, check lab tests, and always choose third-party tested CBD products from reputable sources.