The 2004 Constitution
For instance, in 2015, 75 per cent of officials appointed in the President’s Office of Administrative Affairs (OAA) were Pashtuns. Moreover, Ghani has side-lined several prominent non-Pashtun leaders and forced them out of the unity government. Namely he forced his first vice president, the Uzbek, Abdul Rashid Dostum, into self-imposed exile after accusing him of kidnapping and raping an elderly political opponent. Instead, he has surrounded himself with ethnonationalist Pashtun leaders and has given his Pashtun advisors full access to government resources and decision-making authority.
With all this in mind, there are ways in which governance in Afghanistan can function to decrease the political divisions between different ethnic groups. This could firstly be brought about by amending the constitution and changing the system of government to federal or semi-presidential system. Secondly, reforms could be brought to the current electoral system from SNTV to a PR system to strengthen political parties and ensure a just and inclusive set of representative rights for all segments.
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