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Manage the Weed Seed Bank—Minimize “Deposits” and Maximize “Withdrawals” One of the most important—yet often neglected—weed management strategies is to reduce the number of weed seeds present in The best marijuana seeds online. Buy the best selling weed seeds – start growing with the best marijuana seeds today! Best Cannabis Seed Banks 2022 – Buy Marijuana Seeds Online The legalization of cannabis products hasn’t just allowed people to buy cannabis conveniently at dispensaries or online. It has also

Manage the Weed Seed Bank—Minimize “Deposits” and Maximize “Withdrawals”

One of the most important—yet often neglected—weed management strategies is to reduce the number of weed seeds present in the field, and thereby limit potential weed populations during crop production. This is accomplished by managing the weed seed bank.

What is the Weed Seed Bank, and Why is it Important to Organic Farmers?

The weed seed bank is the reserve of viable weed seeds present on the soil surface and scattered throughout the soil profile. It consists of both new weed seeds recently shed, and older seeds that have persisted in the soil from previous years. In practice, the soil’s weed seed bank also includes the tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, and other vegetative structures through which some of our most serious perennial weeds propagate themselves. In the following discussion, the term weed seed bank is defined as the sum of viable weed seeds and vegetative propagules that are present in the soil and thus contribute to weed pressure in future crops. Agricultural soils can contain thousands of weed seeds and a dozen or more vegetative weed propagules per square foot.

The weed seed bank serves as a physical history of the past successes and failures of cropping systems, and knowledge of its content (size and species composition) can help producers both anticipate and ameliorate potential impacts of crop–weed competition on crop yield and quality. Eliminating “deposits” to the weed seed bank—also called seed rain—is the best approach to ease future weed management. Over a five-year period in Nebraska, broadleaf and grass weed seed banks were reduced to 5 percent of their original density when weeds were not allowed to produce seeds. However, in the sixth year, weeds were not controlled and the seed bank density increased to 90 percent of the original level (Burnside et al., 1986).

Weed seed banks are particularly critical in organic farming systems, which rely on cultivation as a primary means of weed control. Because a cultivation pass generally kills a fixed proportion of weed seedlings present, a high initial population will result in a high density of weeds surviving cultivation—escapes—and competing with the crop. Initial weed population is directly related to the density of seeds in the seed bank (Brainard et al., 2008; Teasdale et al., 2004); thus, effective cultivation-based weed control requires either a low seed bank density (Forcella et al., 1993) or multiple cultivation passes to achieve adequate weed control. In addition, dense weed stands (for example, a “sod” of smooth crabgrass or other grass weed seedlings) can interfere with the efficacy of cultivation implements in severing or uprooting weeds (Mohler, 2001b).

Cultivation efficacy—weed kill—can vary considerably based on equipment, soil conditions, weed growth stage, and operator experience. Eighty percent mortality would be considered quite respectable, a level of weed control far less than that achieved with most herbicides. Therefore, without the “big hammer” of selective herbicides to remove heavy weed populations from standing crops, effective measures to reduce weed seed banks become vital for the organic farmer.

Inputs (“Deposits”) and Losses (“Withdrawals)

Organic growers aim to manage their weed seed banks in the opposite fashion from a long term savings account: minimize “deposits,” and maximize “withdrawals” (Forcella, 2003). Weed seed bank deposits include:

  • The annual weed seed return (or seed “rain”) from reproductively mature weeds in the field or in field margins
  • Production of new rhizomes, tubers, and other vegetative reproductive structures by perennial weeds
  • Weed seeds brought into the field through inputs and farm operations, such as manure, mulch hay, irrigation water, farm machinery, and custom operators
  • Weed seeds introduced by natural forces beyond the farmer’s control, such as wind, floodwaters, and migrating birds

Whereas the first two kinds of deposits have the greatest influence on future population levels of existing weed species, the latter two can introduce new weed species to the farm—somewhat analogous to opening a new kind of bank account with a small initial deposit and a sky-high interest rate. Even two or three viable seeds or propagules of a highly aggressive new weed species can spell trouble in years to come. Thus organic farmers strive both to prevent heavy deposits through propagation of existing weeds, and to prevent establishment of new weed species by excluding their seed and promptly eradicating new invaders. This topic is discussed further in Keeping New Weedy Invaders Out of the Field.

Weed seed bank withdrawals include:

  • Seed germination
  • Fatal germination, in which the seed or propagule sprouts but fails to reach the soil surface due to excessive depth or death from allelochemicals (natural phytotoxic substances released by plants), microbial pathogens, insects, or other organisms in the soil
  • Consumption of weed seeds by ground beetles, crickets, earthworms, slugs, field mice, birds, and other organisms (=weed seed predation)
  • Loss of viability or decay of seeds over time

The first type of withdrawal—germination leading to emergence—is, of course, how weeds begin to compete with and harm crops each season. It is also the foremost mechanism for debiting the seed bank, an effective strategy if emerged seedlings are easily killed by subsequent cultivation or flaming (the stale seedbed technique, for example). Even in species with relatively long-lived seeds such as pigweeds, velvetleaf, and morning glory, the vast majority of weed emergence from a given season’s seed rain takes place within two years after the seeds are shed (Egley and Williams, 1990). Thus, timely germination (when emerging weeds can be readily killed) can go far toward minimizing net deposits into the seed bank from recent weed seed shed. Knowing when to promote or deter weed seed germination, and how to do so for the major weeds present, are important skills in seed bank management.

Weed Seed Bank Dynamics

Weed seeds can reach the soil surface and become part of the soil seed bank through several avenues. The main source of weed seeds in the seed bank is from local matured weeds that set seed. Agricultural weeds can also enter a field on animals, wind, and water, as well as on machinery during activities like cultivation and harvesting (explored further in Keeping New Weedy Invaders Out of the Field).

Weed seeds can have numerous fates after they are dispersed into a field (Fig. 1). Some seeds germinate, emerge, grow, and produce more seeds; others germinate and die, decay in the soil, or fall to predation. The seeds and other propagules of most weeds have evolved mechanisms that render a portion (a large majority in some species) of propagules dormant (alive but not able to germinate) or conditionally dormant (will not germinate unless they receive specific stimuli such as light) for varying periods of time after they are shed. This helps the weed survive in a periodically disturbed, inhospitable, and unpredictable environment. Weed seeds can change from a state of dormancy to nondormancy, in which they can then germinate over a wide range of environmental conditions. Because dormant weed seeds can create future weed problems, weed scientists think of dormancy as a dispersal mechanism through time.

Figure 1. Fate of weed seeds. Inputs to the seed bank are shown with black arrows and losses with white arrows. Figure Credit: Fabian Menalled, MSU Extension, Montana State University.

Maintaining excellent weed control for several consecutive seasons can eliminate a large majority of the weed seed bank, but a small percentage of viable, highly dormant seeds persist, which can be difficult to eliminate (Egley, 1986). Researchers are seeking more effective means to flush out these dormant seeds through multiple stimuli (Egley, 1986).

Weed species also differ in the seasonal timing of their germination and emergence. Germination of many species is governed by growing degree–days (GDD)—the summation of the number of degrees that each day’s average temperature exceeds a base temperature. This concept is founded on the assumption that, below the base temperature, the organisms (in this case seeds) are quiescent, and that as “thermal time” accumulates above this temperature, their development proceeds. In addition, some newly shed weed seeds must first undergo a period of unfavorably cold or hot conditions before they can germinate in response to favorable temperatures. This initial, or primary, dormancy delays emergence until near the beginning of the next growing season—late spring for warm-season weeds (dormancy broken by cold period over winter), and fall for winter annual weeds (dormancy broken by hot period in summer)—when emerging weeds have the greatest likelihood of completing their life cycles and setting the next generation of seed.

The Iowa State University Cooperative Extension Service has evaluated seed germination response of common weeds of field corn in relation to GDD calculated on a base temperature of 48°F beginning in early spring, and categorized the weeds into germination groups (cited in Davis, 2004). For example, winter annuals like field horsetail and shepherd’s purse germinate before any GDD accumulate in the spring; giant ragweed and common lambsquarters require fewer than 150 GDD and therefore emerge several weeks before corn planting; redroot pigweed, giant foxtail, and velvetleaf germinate at 150–300 GDD, close to corn planting time; whereas large crabgrass and fall panicum require over 350 GDD and usually emerge after the corn is up. A few species, such as giant ragweed, emerge only during a short (8 weeks). Knowing when the most abundant species in a particular field are likely to emerge can allow the farmer to adjust planting dates and cultivation schedules to the crop’s advantage.

Several factors other than mean daily soil temperature have a major impact on the timing of weed germination and emergence in the field. Adequate soil moisture is critical for germination, and good seed–soil contact is also important in facilitating the moisture uptake that is required to initiate the process. Thus more weeds may emerge from a firmed soil surface, such as occurs under planter press wheels, than from a loose, crumbly, or fluffy soil surface (Gallandt et al., 1999). For example, densities of common chickweed and common purslane in seeder tracks—in the crop rows—were roughly double those over the rest of the field, whereas annual grass weeds and yellow nutsedge did not show this pattern. (Caldwell and Mohler, 2001).

In addition, many weed seeds are also stimulated to germinate by light (even the very brief flash occasioned by daytime soil disturbance), fluctuations in temperature and moisture, or increases in oxygen or nitrate nitrogen (N) levels in the soil. Tillage, which exposes seeds to these stimuli, is therefore a critical determinant of seed germination. The timing of N fertilizer applications can also influence the number of weeds germinating. For example, many weed species can be stimulated by large increases in soluble N after incorporation of a legume cover crop, or inhibited by delayed applications of N fertilizer.

Shallow soil disturbance during periods of peak potential germination can be an effective tactic for debiting (drawing down) the weed seed bank (Egley, 1986). This phenomenon is exploited when timely cultivated fallow is used to reduce the weed seed bank, and in the establishment of a stale seedbed prior to planting. These tactics encourage the conditionally dormant portion of the seed bank to germinate so that the crop can be sown into a reduced initial weed population.

Weed seeds disperse both horizontally and vertically in the soil profile. While the horizontal distribution of weed seeds in the seed bank generally follow the direction of crop rows, type of tillage is the main factor determining the vertical distribution of weed seeds within the soil profile. In plowed fields, the majority of weed seeds are buried four to six inches below the surface (Cousens and Moss, 1990). Under reduced tillage systems such as chisel plowing, approximately 80 to 90 percent of the weed seeds are distributed in the top four inches. In no-till fields, the majority of weed seeds remain at or near the soil surface. Clements et al. (1996) have shown that soil texture may influence weed seed distribution in the soil profile under these different tillage systems (Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Vertical distribution of weed seeds in a loamy sand soil (top) and a silty loam soil (bottom). Figure credit: adapted from Clements et al. (1996) by Fabian Menalled, MSU Extension, Montana State University.

Understanding the impact of management practices on the vertical distribution of seeds is important because it can help us predict weed emergence patterns. For example, in most soils small-seeded weeds such as kochia, Canada thistle, and common lambsquarters germinate at very shallow depths (less than ½ inch). Large seeded weeds such as common sunflower have more seed reserves and may germinate from greater depths.

Thus, one strategy for managing the weed seed bank, especially for smaller-seeded weeds, is to maintain seeds at or near the soil surface. It is here that seeds experience the greatest exposure to environmental cues that will encourage germination—the most effective means of debiting the seed bank—as well as greater exposure to seed predators (see Encouraging Weed Seed Predation and Decay). Studies have confirmed that some weed seeds, including velvetleaf, morning glory, and pigweed, germinate in larger numbers in untilled than in tilled soil during the first year after seed shed (Egley and Williams, 1990). It may be tempting to use inversion tillage to place seeds below the depth from which they can emerge. This may be an effective strategy for species with short-lived seeds (see below), but it may simply protect longer-lived seeds from mortality factors like seed feeding animals and decomposer fungi, only to be returned to the soil surface by the next deep plowing event.

Factors Affecting Weed Seed Longevity

The number of viable seeds remaining from a given year’s weed seed return declines over time as a result of germination (successful or fatal), predation, and decay. The percentage remaining declines in an approximately exponential manner, similar to the decay curve for a radioactive chemical element—the time for the number to decline by 50% is roughly the same, regardless of the initial num. The half-life of weed seeds varies widely among weed species; for example, hairy galinsoga and some annual grass weeds, such as foxtail species, last only one to a few years, whereas some curly dock and common lambsquarters seed can last over 50 years.

The actual seed longevity in the soil depends on an interaction of many factors, including intrinsic dormancy of the seed population, depth of seed burial, frequency of disturbance, environmental conditions (light, moisture, temperature), and biological processes such as predation, allelopathy, and microbial attack (Davis et al., 2005; Liebman et al., 2001). Understanding how management practices or soil conditions can modify the residence time of viable seeds can help producers minimize future weed problems. For example, seeds of 20 weed species that were mixed into the top 6 inches of soil persisted longer in untilled soil than in soil tilled four times annually (Mohler, 2001a), which likely reflects greater germination losses in the disturbed treatment. On the other hand, a single tillage can enhance the longevity of recently-shed weed seeds, because buried seeds are usually more persistent compared to those left at the surface where they are exposed to predators, certain pathogens, and wide fluctuations of temperature and moisture. However, soilborne pathogens may also contribute to attrition of buried seeds, even in large-seeded species like velvetleaf (Davis and Renner, 2008).

Although seed longevity of agricultural weeds is a cause for notoriety, and a proportion of the population may remain viable for several years or decades, most of the seeds of many weed species will either germinate or die shortly after being dispersed from the parent plant. The seeds of many grasses are particularly short lived. For example, in a field study conducted near Bozeman, MT, wild oat seeds were incorporated into the top four inches of a wheat–fallow field, and approximately 80 percent of them died during the first winter (Harbuck, 2007). It is important to note, however, that postdispersal survival varies widely among weed species.

Evaluating the Weed Seed Bank

One way to estimate a field’s weed seed bank is to wait and see what weeds emerge during the first season. However, knowing something about seed bank content before the season starts can help the farmer prevent severe weed problems before they develop. Davis (2004) recommended the following simple procedure for scouting the weed seed bank:

A little effort in understanding your weed seedbank [sic] can give you valuable information about what weeds to expect in a given growing season, weed density, and when most weed germination will take place. To get a weed preview, you can germinate weeds indoors as you’re waiting to plant. For summer annual weeds, such as velvetleaf, foxtail, lambsquarters, and pigweed, March–April is a good time to sample weed seedbanks [sic] in the North Central region. Using a soil probe or a garden trowel, take 20 samples to a 2” depth in a ‘W’ pattern from the field you’re interested in. Place the soil in a pie dish, put in a warm place (> 65 º F) and keep moist. Within one to two weeks, you should have an idea of what weeds will be emerging in your field as the soil warms.

~ Davis, 2004

For a more representative sampling, collect sufficient soil samples to fill several pie dishes, or a seedling flat. The larger the sample, the more closely the observed weed emergence will reflect field populations.

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Keep in mind that this method is not likely to reveal all the species present in a field. However, in combination with field observations on seasonal patterns of weed emergence, greenhouse weed emergence tests can help anticipate when control tactics are likely to be needed in the coming season, and to begin developing a seed bank management strategy.

Some Weed Seed Bank Management Practices

Use these strategies to minimize annual inputs (deposits) to the weed seed bank:

  • Kill weeds before they set seed—before flowering to be safe, because some weeds (such as hairy galinsoga) can mature seeds from flowers that are pollinated before the weeds are pulled or severed . If in doubt, attempt to thresh the seeds from the fruits or flowers of flowering weeds; dough-consistency and firm seeds can be considered mature and should be removed from the field if possible.
  • Control creeping perennial weeds before they can form new rhizomes, tubers, or other propagules.
  • Keep crops ahead of the weeds—small weeds overshadowed by a good crop canopy may have less than 1% of the seed forming capacity of vigorous individuals growing in full sun.
  • Walk fields to remove large weed escapes before they flower. Getting the largest 10% of individuals can reduce seed production by 90% or better.
  • Mow field margins to minimize seed set by weed species that have the potential to invade fields. (Balance this with the potential role of field margins as beneficial insect habitat).
  • Mow or graze fields promptly after harvest to interrupt weed seed production.
  • Utilize good sanitation practices to prevent introduction of new weed species into the field, and remove new invaders before they propagate.

Another measure that can help contain seed bank populations is to increase the diversity of crop rotations. Although data on the effects of crop rotations on weed seed banks in organic systems have not been consistent, there is some evidence suggesting that more diverse rotations, especially those that include one or more years in red clover, alfalfa, or other perennial sod crops, can help reduce seed inputs from velvetleaf and other annual weeds, and promote seed bank declines through seed predation and decay (Davis et al., 2005; Teasdale et al., 2004; Westerman et al., 2005).

Use these strategies to maximize losses (withdrawals) from the weed seed bank:

  • Till or cultivate to stimulate weed seed germination at a time when the seedlings can be easily knocked out by additional cultivation or flaming (stale seedbed), or will be freeze-killed before they can reproduce. Rolling after tillage can further enhance germination by improving seed–soil contact.
  • If practical, time this tillage or cultivation to take place when seeds of the major weeds present are least dormant, and/or during the season of the weeds’ peak emergence, in order to maximize the seed bank withdrawal.
  • Time crop planting to facilitate destruction of flushes of weed seedling emergence. For example, if the major weeds in a given field are known to reach their peak emergence in mid May, delay corn planting until end of May to allow time to remove this flush prior to planting.
  • Maintain habitat for weed seed predators—vegetation or mulch cover—in at least part of the field for as much of the year as practical.
  • Reduce or avoid tillage during critical times for weed seed predator activity. If a significant weed seed rain has occurred, leave weed seeds at the surface for a period of time before tilling to maximize weed seed predation.

Because soil microorganisms can play a role in weed seed decay, maintaining a high level of soil biological activity through good organic soil management might be expected to shorten the half-life of weed seed banks. In addition, incorporation of a succulent legume or other cover crop may either stimulate weed seed germination by enhancing soil nitrate N levels, or promote weed seed or seedling decay as a result of the “feeding frenzy” of soil microorganisms on the green manure residues. However, the potential of these practices as weed seed bank management tools requires verification through further research.

While it is sometimes advantageous to cause weed seeds to germinate, it is important at other times to keep them quiescent long enough for the crop to get well established. Several practices can help reduce the number of weeds emerging in the crop.

  • Cultivate at night or with light shields over the cultivation implement to minimize the light stimulus to weed seeds.
  • Leave a loose soil surface after planting or cultivation to reduce seed–soil contact for near-surface weed seeds, thereby deterring germination. If practical, cover newly seeded rows with loose soil to reduce within-row weed emergence.
  • Minimize soil disturbance at or near the time of planting. Do major tillage in fall or very early spring several weeks before planting. Use flame or very shallow cultivation to prepare the seedbed.
  • Avoid practices that result in early pulses of nitrogen that may stimulate weed emergence. Use split N fertilizer applications and slow releasing forms of N, such as compost and legume–grass cover crop mixtures) to make N availability patterns over the season match N needs of the crop rather than the weeds.
  • Avoid planting crops in fields with heavy populations of weeds with similar life cycles. For example, fields dominated by late emerging summer annual weeds might best be planted in early crops like peas.
  • Time crop planting to take place well before the most abundant weed species in the field are expected to emerge.
  • Time crop planting to take place after the expected major weed seedling flushes, and remove the latter by shallow cultivation or flame weeding.
  • Invert the soil to a depth from which weed seeds cannot emerge (most effective for weeds with small, short-lived seeds).

Incorporated green manures or surface residues of cover crops can reduce the establishment of small-seeded weeds through allelopathy and/or physical hindrance. Thus, these practices can provide a measure of selective weed control for transplanted or large-seeded crops, which are tolerant to the stresses imposed by cover crop residues. This selectivity does not apply to small-seeded, direct sown vegetables like carrots and salad greens, which are at least as sensitive to these cover crop effects as small-seeded weeds.

Challenge of Weed Seed Bank Diversity

Remember that none of these strategies can be expected to eliminate the weed seed bank, and also that you may need to change seed bank management strategy as the seed bank itself changes. The reason the weed seed bank is so difficult to manage is because it contains not only many seeds, but many different kinds of seeds, with typically 20 to 50 different weed species in a single field. In other words, the grower may have to deal with 20 to 50 different plant survival strategies! Thus, there will almost always be some weeds that tolerate, or even thrive on, whatever combination of seed bank management strategies the farmer adopts.

For example, some but not all weed species have light-responsive seeds, and dark cultivation reduces emergence only in the light responders. Similarly, careful nitrogen (N) management can reduce problems with nitrate responders but have no effect on nonresponders and could even favor a weed that is well adapted to low levels of soluble N. The best approach to weed seed bank management is to design your strategy around the four or five most serious weeds present, then monitor changes in the weed flora over time, noting what new weed species emerge as the original target weed species decline. Then change your seed bank management strategy accordingly. Plan on making such adjustments every few years, and if possible, keep a sense of curiosity and humor about the weeds!

This article is part of a series on Twelve Steps Toward Ecological Weed Management in Organic Vegetables. For more on managing the weed seed bank, see:

References and Citations

  • Brainard, D. C., R. R. Bellinder, R. R. Hahn, and D. A. Shah. 2008. Crop rotation, cover crop and weed management effects on weed seedbanks and yields in snap bean, sweet corn and cabbage. Weed Science 56: 434–441. (Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-07-107.1) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Burnside, O. C., R. G. Wilson, G. A. Wicks, F. W. Roeth, and R. S. Moomaw. 1986. Weed seed decline and buildup under various corn management systems in Nebraska. Agronomy Journal 78: 451–454. (Available online at: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/abstracts/78/3/AJ0780030451) (verified 4 April 2011).
  • Caldwell, B., and C. L. Mohler. 2001. Stale seedbed practices for vegetable production. HortScience 36: 703–705.
  • Clements, D. R., D. L. Benoit, and C. J. Swanton. 1996. Tillage effects on weed seed return and seedbank composition. Weed Science 44: 314–322. (Available online at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4045684) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Cousens, R., and S. R. Moss. 1990. A model of the effects of cultivations on the vertical distribution of weed seeds within the soil. Weed Research 30: 61–70. (Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1365-3180.1990.tb01688.x ) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Davis, A. S. 2004. Managing weed seedbanks throughout the growing season [Online]. New Agriculture Network Vol. 1 No. 2.
  • Davis, A. S., J. Cardina, F. Forcella, G. A. Johnson, G. Khttp://eorganic.info/node/2806/editegode, J. L. Lindquist, E. C. Lusheri, K. A. Renner, C. L. Sprague, and M. M. Williams. 2005. Environmental factors affecting seed persistence of annual weeds across the US corn belt. Weed Science 53: 860–868. (Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-05-064R1.1) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Davis, A. S., and K. A. Renner. 2006. Influence of seed depth and pathogens on fatal germination of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi). Weed Science 55: 30–35. (Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/W-06-099.1) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Davis, A. S., K. A. Renner, and K. L. Gross. 2005. Weed seedbank and community shifts in a long-term cropping systems experiment. Weed Science 53: 296–306. (Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-04-182) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Egley, G. H. 1996. Stimulation of weed seed germination in soil. Reviews of Weed Science 2: 67–89.
  • Egley, G. H., and R. D. Williams. 1990. Decline of weed seeds and seedling emergence over five years as affected by soil disturbance. Weed Science 38: 504–510. (Available online at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4045064) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Forcella, F. 2003. Debiting the seedbank: Priorities and predictions. p. 151–162. In R. M. Bekker et al. (ed.) Seedbanks: Determination, dynamics and management. Aspects of Applied Biology 69. Association of Applied Biologists, Wellesbourne, UK.
  • Forcella, F., K. Eradat-Oskoui, and S. W. Wagner. 1993. Application of weed seedbank ecology to low-input crop management. Ecological Applications 3: 74–83. (Available online at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1941793) (verified 23 March 2010).
  • Gallandt, E. R., M. Liebman, and D. R. Huggins. 1999. Improving soil quality: Implications for weed management. p. 95–121. In D. D. Buhler (ed.) Expanding the context of weed management. Food Products Press, New York.
  • Harbuck, K. Z. 2007. Weed seedbank dynamics and composition of Northern Great Plains cropping systems. MS Thesis. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.
  • Liebman, M., C. L. Mohler, and C. P. Staver. 2001. Ecological management of agricultural weeds. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Menalled, F. 2008. Weed seedbank dynamics and integrated management of agricultural weeds. Montana State University Extension MontGuide MT200808AG. (Available online at: http://www.msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/MT200808AG.pdf) (verified 11 March 2010).
  • Mohler, C. L. 2001a. Weed life history: identifying vulnerabilities. p. 40–98. In M. Liebman et al. Ecological management of agricultural weeds. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Mohler, C. L. 2001b. Mechanical management of weeds. p. 139–209. In M. Liebman et al. Ecological management of agricultural weeds. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Teasdale, J. R., R. W. Magnum, J. Radhakrishnan, and M. A. Cavigelli. 2004. Weed seedbank dynamics in three organic farming crop rotations. Agronomy Journal 96: 1429–1435. (Available online at https://www.agronomy.org/publications/aj/articles/96/5/1429?highlight=JmFydGljbGVfdm9sdW1lPTk2JnE9KGF1dGhvcjolMjJUZWFzZGFsZSUyMikmcT0oam91cm5hbDphaikmbGVuPTEwJnN0YXJ0PTEmc3RlbT1mYWxzZSZzb3J0PQ%3D%3D ) (verified 4 April 2011).
  • Westerman, P. R., M. Liebman, F. D. Menalled, A. H. Heggenstaller, R. G. Hartzler, and P. M. Dixon. 2005. Are many little hammers effective? Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) poplution dynamics in two- and four-year crop rotation systems. Weed Science 53: 382–392. (Available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WS-04-130R) (verified 23 March 2010).

Published August 20, 2013

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What are the best-selling weed seeds?

Many confuse the best-selling weed seeds with the most potent cannabis strains. While these popular cultivars contain high levels of THC, they offer unique effects and flavors that make them unforgettable.

Many of the best-selling cannabis seeds have obtained legendary status, cementing themselves in the marijuana hall of fame. Others only recently rose to stardom by pushing the boundaries of what we imagine is possible.

We’ve put together six of the best-selling weed seeds available from Homegrown Cannabis Co to get things started. Here, you’ll find a summary of these strains and what makes them such an incredible option.

Shishkaberry Kush feminized seeds

This indica-dominant hybrid earned its place amongst the best-selling weed seeds due to its uplifting effects and incredible flavor profile. Its buds contain a whopping 24% THC, inducing a mental euphoria and focus.

At the same time, your body experiences waves of tranquility, triggering unparalleled relaxation. Shishkaberry Kush comes from crossing a landrace Afghani with DJ Short Blueberry.

This iconic blend has won multiple awards, including second place at the 2001 High Times Cannabis Cup. An explosion of flavors awaits when this cultivar touches your lips. You’ll notice the taste of berries and fruit as you inhale, followed by a herbal musk upon release.

Growing these cannabis seeds is easy, even for beginners. It resists many of the diseases that plague cultivators and thrive both indoors and outside. The feminized version offers a flowering time of seven to nine weeks, after which you can expect yields measuring up to 21 oz. per plant.

While this cultivar only contains 0.6% CBD, it’s proven to help medicinal users. Patients with nausea, stress, and chronic migraines will find great relief with Shiskaberry Kush.

Bruce Banner autoflower seeds

Much like the powerful comic book character, this sativa-dominant hybrid promises a powerful kick. The Bruce Banner auto seeds can offer one of the highest concentrations of THC , earning its rightful spot in our list of best-selling weed seeds .

Smoking these buds releases a sweet berry and citrus fragrance that’s enhanced on your tongue. You can also expect a slight fuel-like taste that lingers. Look forward to a long-lasting buzz that fills you with renewed energy and creativity. It’s perfect for beating those mid-morning slumps but can leave you spaced out.

Breeders crossed the Bruce Banner strain with an unknown ruderalis to create the autoflower version available today. These cannabis seeds don’t rely on a light schedule to start flowering, ensuring a harvest in record time.

Beginners will find these weed seeds challenging to grow, as you need to utilize a few advanced techniques. These autoflower seeds produce their best results indoors. They can be grown outdoors too if that’s your only option. A grow tent with the right conditions can yield up to 18 oz./m².

Jack Herer feminized seeds

No list of the best-selling cannabis seeds is complete without the Jack Herer fem seeds. This sativa leaning hybrid pays tribute to its namesake by triggering a thought-provoking high that leaves you relaxed and uplifted.

With up to 24% THC, this cannabis strain has amassed a massive following, along with multiple awards along the way. These feminized marijuana seeds owe their iconic status to three classic cultivars—Northern Lights, Haze, and Shiva Skunk.

A few tokes are enough to make you an instant fan. Its smooth smoke wraps around your tongue, giving off aromas of sweet tropical fruit and spicy pepper. You can enjoy this well-rounded strain any time of day for both recreational and medicinal purposes.

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No matter how new you are to growing cannabis, it’s an absolute joy to cultivate. You can raise these best-selling weed seeds indoors or outside and expect massive yields measuring up to 18 oz. per plant.

Green Crack feminized seeds

This sativa-dominant strain gained its notoriety after Snoop Dogg renamed it after its energizing effects . It’s quickly become one of the best-selling cannabis seeds and a particular favorite for users searching for a wake and bake option.

Smokers can look forward to a mouthful of sweet citrus and tropical fruit flavors as you light these buds up. Its 15% THC enhances your focus, allowing you to tackle any task.

Although it’s considered one of the best-selling weed seeds , growing the Green Crack fem requires a skilled hand. Its thick flowers are vulnerable to mold and can break without the needed support. You need to put all your effort into growing these marijuana seeds . In exchange, t hey can provide enormous yields of up to 28 oz. per plant outside or 23 oz.m² indoors.

Runtz feminized seeds

If you’re a candy enthusiast, Runtz feminized is everything you could want and more. Lighting these buds releases a sweet berry and fruity flavor that tickles the senses. With up to 19% THC, this balanced hybrid burst onto the scene in 2020 and quickly became one of the best-selling weed seeds .

It induces a relaxed euphoria that both recreational and medicinal users can benefit from. This cultivar is the result of mixing Gelato with Zkittlez—proof that combining two legendary strains breeds brilliance. The best traits from both parents meld into one incredible strain.

Even though growing these cannabis seeds can be challenging, beginners can enjoy bountiful harvests with some hard work. Runtz feminized seeds can grow indoors and outside, yielding up to 18 oz. per plant. With a flowering time of eight to nine weeks, you can harvest in October.

Strawberry Cough feminized seeds

Add an extra ray of sunshine by starting your day with the magnificent Strawberry Cough feminized . This sativa-dominant cultivar won first place at the 2013 Cannabis Cup . Its popularity has been on the rise ever since—cementing its place among the best-selling weed seeds .

Consuming these strawberry-flavored buds takes you on an uplifting ride that leaves you feeling happy and content. Its potent 25% THC levels unlock many healing benefits for medicinal users and recreational fans alike.

Kyle Kushman created this incredible cultivar by crossing Haze and a mysterious clone he nicknamed Strawberry Field. One of the reasons Strawberry Cough has become one of the best-selling cannabis seeds is how easy it is to grow. This beginner-friendly cultivar can be grown indoors and outdoors. After nine weeks of flowering, it reveals a fruitful harvest of up to 18 oz. per plant.

Why buy the best-selling cannabis seeds?

Every cannabis strain offers something unique , whether it’s through its flavor or magical effects. Our list of the best-selling weed seeds is there to guide those new to the 420 market. It’s based on the popularity of these cultivars with our customers, which is why we know you’ll love them too.

The reason these particular cannabis seeds have gained such widespread attention is due to their dependable results. You can look forward to massive yields and scintillating resinous buds by following our cultivating advice. Some marijuana strains require specific growing conditions, which makes them difficult to grow in some climates.

The genetics of the best-selling cannabis seeds were perfected and stabilized through years of dedication—making them easier to cultivate. That’s not to say you can pick any option. You still need to take a few factors into account:

  • Your skill level.
  • Your growing setup.
  • The type of effects.
  • The flavor and fragrance.

Answering these questions gives you a better idea of which of the best-selling weed seeds are perfect for you.

How to grow the best-selling weed seeds?

There’s a reason why cultivators love growing the best-selling weed seeds. These strains are an absolute joy to have in your grow house. Many of the cultivars in this category offer resistance to common diseases and issues like mold and mildew.

They also flourish in different environments, so you can grow the best-selling cannabis seeds indoors or outside. Indoor grow tents give you full control over the elements, allowing you to cultivate marijuana all year round.

Purchasing all the equipment needed for indoor setups can get pricey, so if you’re on a tight budget, outdoors is the way to go. Find a warm sunny spot for your best-selling weed seeds and let mother nature take your plants under her wing.

In the northern hemisphere, you need to plant your cannabis seeds in April. Depending on the flowering time of the specific cultivar, you can harvest around October.

It’s vital to choose the right growing medium for your best-selling weed seeds . Nutrient-rich soil is perfect for enhancing the taste and smell of your buds. Hydroponics and soilless mediums tend to speed up the vegging phase, allowing you to harvest sooner.

Figuring out which marijuana seed variant you need to buy can become overwhelming, especially for anyone new to cannabis. We recommend choosing a feminized or regular version for novice cultivators. Both variations promise larger yields and more resilient plants.

Beginners can also check out Kyle Kushman’s How to Grow Marijuana series . You’ll learn everything you need to grow the best-selling weed seeds to their full potential. For even more assistance and info, visit our Homegrown Forum. Here, you’ll find all the info and guidance you’ll need from our community. You can also connect with other cannabis growers and exchange tips and tricks.

Where to buy the best-selling cannabis seeds?

These days, finding the best-selling weed seeds is easy. Their popularity has sparked a high demand as more people choose to experience their incredible qualities. You can buy weed seeds online or from a cannabis shop in the states where recreational use is legal.

The biggest advantage to purchasing the best-selling cannabis seeds from a reputable online seed bank is their quality. Our marijuana seeds promise stable genetics, ensuring they grow into the plants of your dreams. What’s more, we guarantee successful germination rates and yields so fruitful you’ll feel like cannabis royalty.

Another advantage to buying the best-selling weed seeds online is the wide range of options available. We offer discreet delivery, allowing you to keep your hobby to yourself.

Are you interested in growing marijuana but have a tight budget? Visit our cheap cannabis seeds page for deals that’ll put a smile on your face. We know how incredible our best-selling cannabis seeds are, but check out the reviews left by our customers if you need reassurance.

Purchasing cannabis seeds from Homegrown Cannabis Co is only the beginning. Why not start your own Homegrown Diary and track the progress of your crops? You can also compare your results with other cultivators in our community.

If you run into any issues, ask for help, and our friendly community will have you back on track in no time. Purchase your best-selling weed seeds from Homegrown Cannabis Co. for an experience you’ll never forget.

Best Cannabis Seed Banks 2022 – Buy Marijuana Seeds Online

The legalization of cannabis products hasn’t just allowed people to buy cannabis conveniently at dispensaries or online. It has also legalized the growing of cannabis plants, which has created a whole new industry of cannabis seed banks.

Cannabis seed banks are businesses where you can buy cannabis seeds online. Seed banks offer a wide variety of seeds for hemp and marijuana strains that provide varying effects in order to perfectly meet the needs of any cannabis consumer. Growing cannabis from weed seeds purchased at seed banks can be a fun and cost-effective way to get the therapeutic and recreational benefits of cannabis without the high costs and taxes applied at local neighborhood dispensaries. Additionally, growing your own cannabis from seed bank purchases lets you control the quality and potency of the product you’re consuming.

Much like all dispensaries are not created equal, not all seed banks offer the same types of products. To ensure that you are getting premium weed seeds guaranteed to provide a bountiful harvest, check out the best sites to buy cannabis seeds.

Top 5 Picks for Best Cannabis Seed Banks

The 5 Best Cannabis Seed Banks Online

Any of these seed banks are guaranteed to offer premium quality seeds sourced from some of the best strains in the world.

1. I Love Growing Marijuana – Editor’s Choice

  • 72 hour germination period
  • Free domestic shipping in the USA
  • Huge resource library for new and professional growers
  • Organized by effect, strain, climate, and THC level
  • No live chat support

I Love Growing Marijuana (aka ILGM) is a highly reputable cannabis seed bank that offers an unbeatable selection of seeds sourced from award-winning strains. ILGM has been in business for a decade and is the go-to source for beginner and experienced cannabis growers.

The website is exceptionally well organized and easy to use, with a library of information that rivals even the most dedicated cannabis-growing forums. With plenty of discounts and the ability to shop by seed preferences, ILGM is an excellent one-stop shop to buy marijuana seeds online.

IGLM – Seeds for Sale

The selection of marijuana seeds at ILGM is truly staggering, but some of the most popular strains include:

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  • White Widow (sativa dominant)
  • Super Skunk (sativa hybrid)
  • Gorilla Glue (indica hybrid)
  • Grandaddy Purple (indica dominant)
  • Durban Poison (sativa dominant)
  • Super Silver Haze (sativa hybrid)

Each of these popular cannabis strains is available in seed bank packs ranging anywhere from 5 to 20 seeds. The product page for these and the other strains on ILGM include tons of helpful information for growers, such as the germination time, effects, awards one, strain history, yield expectancy, and growth time.

In addition to these popular strains, ILGM offers a variety of other cannabis seeds for sale organized into categories such as:

  • Seeds by climate
  • Seeds by effect
  • Seeds by location
  • Seeds by THC level
  • Seeds by strain
  • Seeds by growing experience
  • Seeds by taste
  • Seeds by CBD content

By organizing the website into multiple categories, ILGM makes it easy for anyone interested in growing marijuana to find the right strain for their needs.

What really puts ILGM at the top of our list of high-quality, reputable seed banks is its incredible range of autoflowering and feminized seeds. Feminized and autoflowering marijuana seeds ensure that growers won’t have any trouble with sexing or flowering their plants, making the growing process as stress-free – and high-yield – as possible.

2. MSNL – Runner-Up

  • Accepts cash in 7 different currencies
  • Free seeds with every order
  • Seeds sourced from world-class cannabis breeders
  • Delivery guaranteed on every order
  • Cutting-edge shipping and billing discretion
  • Some customers have trouble with international payments
  • Orders shipped outside the UK can take 3-4 business weeks to arrive

MSNL is a highly respected cannabis seed bank that offers an impressive variety of both feminized and autoflowering seeds, and includes free seeds with an order. In the business of providing cannabis seeds since 1999 to people worldwide, MSNL has become one of the most well-known, reputable seed banks online.

What really sets MSNL apart from other seed banks is the fact that they offer seeds sourced from some of the world’s most renowned cannabis breeders. In addition, MSNL takes great pride in the quality of its products, and this attention to detail is evident in every aspect of its operation, from the quality of its seeds to its discreet and cutting-edge shipping practices.

MSNL – Seeds for Sale

The MSNL catalog offers a wide variety of indica, sativa, and hybrid strains. Popular cannabis seed strains include:

  • THC Bomb (hybrid)
  • Gorilla Glue (indica hybrid)
  • Bruce Banner #3 (sativa hybrid)
  • Peanut Butter Breath (hybrid)
  • Forbidden Fruit (indica hybrid)

Each individual cannabis seed page on the site contains all of the vital information needed to help understand the effects, THC content, growing difficulty, taste, aroma, yield, and more. Weed seeds can be purchased in small to wholesale batches ranging from 10 to 500 marijuana seeds. Every order comes with additional free seeds to give growers a taste of other strains and customize their cannabis garden more to their liking.

To make choosing the best seeds easy and ensure that growers get precisely what they need to achieve their medical or recreational goals, MSNL offers categorized search filters on its website, such as:

  • Autoflowering seeds
  • Feminized seeds
  • High-THC seeds
  • Regular seeds
  • High-yield seed
  • Medical seeds

These search filters, combined with MSNL’s helpful grow blog, make it simple for growers of all experience levels to find the right strain for their needs.

3. Quebec Cannabis Seeds – Staff Pick

  • Pest and disease resistant seeds
  • No signature is required for delivery
  • Free replacement seeds if they don’t germinate
  • Stealth shipping standard
  • Free shipping only on orders over $200
  • No growing guide on the website

For 15 years, Quebec Cannabis Seeds has been both a reliable place to buy seeds and an advocate for progressive cannabis legislation to help people meet their health and wellness needs. With a firm belief that everyone should have access to the highest quality seeds to grow cannabis, Quebec Cannabis Seeds offers a wide range of seeds that are hand-selected for their THC and CBD content.

Offering stealth shipping on all orders and affordable wholesale programs for those that want to buy marijuana seeds in bulk, Quebec Cannabis Seeds is an online seed bank you can trust to grow a bountiful crop of cannabis plants.

Quebec Cannabis Seeds – Seeds for Sale

The Quebec Cannabis Seeds catalog features a wide variety of high-quality cannabis strains, with some of their best sellers including:

  • Quebec Gold 2.0 (hybrid)
  • Gorilla Glue (indica hybrid)
  • Quebec Blue (sativa hybrid)
  • AK-47 (sativa dominant)
  • Purple Kush (indica hybrid)

As with any reliable online seed bank, Quebec Cannabis Seeds offers detailed information on each product page, including flowering time, ideal growing area, THC content, strain and genetics information, and yield.

Feminized, regular, and autoflowering seeds come in packs counting 5 to 10 seeds. Bulk orders for wholesale seeds can also be purchased on the website in cannabis seed packs containing a minimum of 100 seeds.

To make shopping easy, Quebec Cannabis Seeds organizes their marijuana seed varieties into categories such as:

  • Feminized
  • Autoflowering
  • Regular THC
  • Limited Edition
  • Bulk
  • Fast Growing
  • Outdoor/Indoor
  • CBD

These categories ensure that new and professional growers can easily find the perfect seeds needed to start cultivating a bountiful crop of cannabis plants quickly and easily. Additionally, Quebec Cannabis Seeds online seed bank is the ideal solution for growers on a budget with a number of cannabis seed options available at discounted prices.

4. Seedsman – People’s Choice

  • Loyalty rewards and referral program
  • Accepts multiple cryptocurrencies
  • Worldwide shipping
  • Multiple cannabinoid strains available
  • Germination rates are lower than others on this list
  • Stock availability varies

Seedsman is a global cannabis seed bank that has been supplying high-quality seeds to growers since 2002. Seedsman focuses on customer service and offers a loyalty reward and referral program to thank their customers for their support.

In addition to accepting Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum, Seedsman also offers free worldwide shipping on all orders, making it easy for growers around the world to get the cannabis seeds they need.

With a wide variety of cannabinoid strains available, including CBDV, CBG, and other alternative cannabinoid strains, Seedsman has something for everyone. The founders of Seedsman’s belief that high-quality seeds for cannabis should be available to all has led Seedsman to work with charities and advocacy groups to ensure that people have access to the highest quality seeds possible.

Seedsman – Seeds for Sale

The Seedsman catalog offers a wide variety of high-quality cannabis strains, with some of their best sellers including:

  • Alaskan Diesel (sativa dominant)
  • Purple Ghost Candy (sativa hybrid)
  • D.O.G (sativa dominant)
  • Blue Dream (sativa dominant)
  • Strawberry Cheesecake (indica dominant)

Each product page for any of Seedman’s high-quality seeds for sale includes detailed customer reviews, plant genetics, effects, taste, aroma, and more to help growers make informed decisions about the strains they are interested in. Unlike other online seed banks on this list, Seedman allows users to purchase as little as one seed. This means that growers looking to test out a new strain don’t have to buy an entire pack of 5, 10, or more seeds.

To make it easy for growers to find the right cannabis seed for their needs, Seedsman has organized their strains into the following categories:

  • Price
  • THC Content
  • Gender
  • CBD Content
  • Flowering Type
  • Grow Area (indoor, outdoor, greenhouse)

Seedsman is an excellent online seed bank for those looking to get the most out of their budget when growing cannabis at home. They have tons of seeds available at discounted prices and an excellent loyalty and referral program.

5. Crop King Seeds – Honorable Mention

  • 24/7 customer support
  • Quality assurance seed testing
  • Accepts cash payments through Moneygram
  • Insured and guaranteed delivery options
  • Focuses more on new age hybrids rather than traditional cannabis strains
  • Some international orders may be seized at customs

Crop King Seeds has been in the business for over 12 years. Dedicated to providing the medical benefits of cannabis to personal and large-scale growers, Crop King Seeds is one of the most reliable and consistent seed banks in the industry.

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All Crop King Seeds are quality tested in a state-of-the-art lab to ensure that growers are getting the best product possible. In addition, they offer a number of different payment options, including cash payments through Moneygram, Bitcoin, and most major credit cards.

With over 500 different cannabis seed strains available, this bank has something for everyone. Focusing primarily on new age hybrids, they have a number of traditional strains available as well.

Crop King Seeds – Seeds for Sale

Detailing the hundreds of seeds available to buy online or in their retail locations would be an impossible task. However, some of the most popular cannabis seed strains for sale at Crop King Seeds Include:

  • Amnesia Haze (sativa dominant)
  • Candy Cane (indica hybrid)
  • Early Miss (indica dominant)
  • Jack Herer (sativa dominant)
  • Lambs Breath (sativa dominant)

These popular strains, along with hundreds of other high-quality cannabis seeds, are available for purchase at a variety of price points to fit any budget. Seeds can be purchased in batches of 5, 10, and 25 with no limit to the number of seed pouches a customer can order.

To make purchasing easy for anyone wanting to buy seeds and grow cannabis plants at home, Crop King organizes their seed options by:

  • Strain name
  • Strain type
  • Gender
  • Flowering capability

Whether you are looking for traditional cannabis strains known for their effectiveness and THC potency or new-age hybrid strains bred for their superior yield and flavor, Crop King Seeds has you covered. Furthermore, anyone interested in learning how to grow cannabis can access the bank’s wealth of growing information and resources.

How Did We Choose These 5 Cannabis Seed Sites?

When presented with the challenge of finding the best online seed banks, our research team used numerous factors to filter out the best of the best. We looked at:

Variety: It is essential that online seed banks offer a wide variety of cannabis strains to meet the needs of all their customers. So whether you are looking for a high-THC strain or a CBD-rich strain, the best seed banks will have something to offer everyone.

Shipping: The best seed banks have fast and reliable shipping that reaches the customer more often than not. With the legality of cannabis seeds varying from country to country, we looked for seed banks that have more than 95% success rates with orders being delivered.

Reputation: Online seed banks are only as good as their customer reviews. Therefore, we scoured each site and third-party cannabis review sites for customer feedback to understand which online seed banks were the best.

This information led us to choose the five best seed banks mentioned above. Selecting any of them to buy marijuana seeds online will leave you with a quality purchase that will lead to a bountiful cannabis crop.

What To Look For When Buying Cannabis Seeds

When buying cannabis seeds, it is essential to look for seed options that will best meet your medical or recreational needs. All cannabis seeds for sale are different, and knowing what to look for will ensure a positive and bountiful growing experience.

When buying cannabis seeds online, many vendors will list the gender of the seed. Female or feminized seeds and regular seeds are usually the two most common options that growers will need to choose between. The right choice will depend on what you want to get out of your cannabis grow.

Feminized seeds are bred to be all-female plants and will produce buds even if the male plants are nearby. This can be important for growers who want to ensure a successful harvest without worrying about accidentally pollinating their female plants.

Regular seeds will produce both male and female plants. Therefore, they are better for growers who want to crossbreed their plants to create new strains.

The flowering time is how long it will take the plant to start producing buds. This information can be important for growers who want to know how much time they need to allocate for their grow. For example, some plants require as little as six weeks to flower, while others can take several months.

Be aware that getting your cannabis plant to flower is not always guaranteed. The flowering process requires the plant to be in the right conditions, so even if you have chosen a seed that is supposed to flower in six weeks, it may take longer if the conditions are not right.

To avoid any issues, it is recommended to get autoflowering seeds. Autoflowering cannabis seeds are bred to flower regardless of the light cycle, so they are a good option for growers who do not have much time to dedicate to their growing operation.

The two most common cannabinoids found in cannabis are THC and CBD. THC is the psychoactive cannabinoid that gets users high, while CBD is the non-psychoactive cannabinoid often used to treat medical conditions.

When buying cannabis seeds, it is important to know the THC and CBD levels of the strain so you can choose the one that is right for you. Some strains are high in THC, while others are high in CBD. There are also strains that have balanced levels of both cannabinoids.

  • Climate Conditions & Grow Area

One of the most essential considerations when buying cannabis seeds online is the climate and growing area where you will be planting the seeds. Not all cannabis strains are created equal, and some strains are better suited for colder climates while others do better in warmer climates. Some strains are also better suited for indoor grows, while others do better outdoors.

It is essential to do your research before buying any cannabis seeds to ensure you are getting a strain that will thrive in your climate and growing area. To aid in this part of the selection process, many online cannabis seed vendors organize their seed options for sale by the region, climate, and growing area where they will be most successful.

The yield of a cannabis plant is how much product the plant will produce. Yield is often determined by the size and shape of the buds.

Some strains are known for their high yields, while others are known for their low yields. Therefore, when buying cannabis seeds, it is crucial to know how much yield you can expect from the strain so that you can plan a growing space accordingly.

How To Choose the Right Cannabis Seed Bank

Even with the curated list above, it can still be challenging to determine which seed banks are right for you. Each offers satisfaction guarantees, a wide range of seeds to choose from, and various delivery options designed to protect your purchase from prying eyes. Some even offer free seeds as a tease. However, these qualities aren’t the only thing you should look for when buying marijuana seeds online for medical or recreational growing purposes. Consider the following factors as well.

Germination Rate Guarantee

Germination is key to starting successful cannabis plant growth. This process is the sprouting of a seed and the development of the embryonic root and shoot. If you are buying cannabis seeds, it is important that the seed bank you buy them from offers a germination rate guarantee. This means that if your seeds do not germinate, you will be able to get a refund or replacement seeds.

While most cannabis seed banks will claim at least an 80% germination guarantee, it is best to look for ones that use advanced genetic breeding techniques that guarantee a high rate of germination. Considering how long it can take for seeds to be delivered and the growing process to start, a failed germination on seeds will only increase the time it takes to start enjoying your home-grown cannabis.

Be sure to check each seed bank’s germination guarantee and their solutions for seed orders that don’t germinate. If they don’t offer replacement seeds or a refund on the seeds, it is best to consider an alternative seed bank that will work to rectify any germination issues quickly.

Customer Service

Since you will likely have many questions about the cannabis seeds you are buying, it is important that the seed bank you buy them from has excellent customer service. The staff should be knowledgeable about the products they sell and be able to answer any questions you may have. They should also be available to help you with any problems you may experience with your order.

Look for a seed bank with a customer service team that is available 24/7, so you can get the help you need when you need it.

When buying cannabis seeds, you will likely want the utmost discretion when it comes to your purchase. Considering that the growing of cannabis seeds (and sometimes the sale) is not always entirely legal in some countries, it is important that the seed bank you buy from takes measures to protect your purchase.

Look for a seed bank that offers a variety of discreet shipping options that will keep your purchase confidential. In addition, be sure to check whether the seed bank uses stealth packaging, which will further ensure that no one knows what you are buying.

It may be beneficial to purchase any additional insurance protection from the seed bank when placing your order on the off chance that customs or other law enforcement agencies seize the package.

Growing Advice & Accessories

When you buy cannabis seeds, it is important that the seed bank you purchase offers growing advice and accessories. This will help you get started on the right foot and increase your plants’ chances of success.

Look for a seed bank that offers a variety of growing advice, such as how to germinate the seeds, how to care for the plants, and what strains are best suited for your climate. In addition, be sure to look for a seed bank that offers a variety of accessories, such as soil, grow lamps, and fertilizers. Growing accessories will provide vital nutrients and enriched environments for your plants, helping them to grow into healthy and thriving cannabis plants.

Multiple Payment Options

Discretion isn’t only tied to shipping. In many cases, those who buy cannabis seeds would prefer to do so without the prying eyes of financial institutions knowing what they are doing.

Look for seed banks that offer a variety of credit card, cash, or cryptocurrency payment options to ensure your privacy when purchasing cannabis seeds online.

What Are the Best Strains of Cannabis or Marijuana Seeds?

The best seeds for cannabis users will depend on a variety of factors. Fortunately, seed banks provide incredibly detailed seed product pages that outline the best use case for each seed variety.

When looking for the best cannabis seeds to buy, it is important to consider your climate, growing environment, and experience level. For example, some strains are better suited for indoor growing, while others thrive when grown outdoors.

In addition, some strains are more potent than others and may be better suited for experienced cannabis users. Be sure to do your research before buying any cannabis seeds to ensure you are getting the best product for your needs.

If you are new to cannabis culture, check out the following definitions to help you better understand the information provided on seed bank websites.

Strain Type

The strain type refers to the genetic line of the cannabis plant and different strains have varying effects. There are three main types of strains: indica, sativa, and hybrid.

Indica strains are typically associated with relaxation and sleepiness. They are often chosen by medical cannabis patients who are in need of full-body comfort, anti-inflammatory relief, and solutions to sleep disorders such as insomnia. Indica strains can be incredibly potent, creating effects that will be more lethargic and sedating.

Sativa strains are typically associated with energy and creativity. Therefore, they are often chosen by cannabis users who want to increase their focus, productivity, or social interactions. Sativa strains can also be incredibly potent, but typically their intense effects will be more cerebral and euphoric.

Hybrid strains are a mix of indica and sativa genetics. They offer the best of both worlds, providing users with a variety of effects that can be enjoyed depending on the individual’s needs and preferences. Hybrid strains can be indica or sativa dominant so that patients and recreational users can select one for their specific needs.

THC Content

The THC content of a cannabis plant is the compound responsible for the psychoactive effects that users feel.

High THC strains are often chosen by those who want to experience a strong euphoria, pain relief, and relaxation. Some strains can have THC levels as high as 30%.

Low THC strains are often chosen by medical cannabis patients who want to avoid the psychoactive effects of THC. These strains typically have THC levels below 10%.

CBD Content

CBD is a compound found in cannabis plants that do not produce a psychoactive effect. CBD strains are often chosen due to their many potential medical benefits. CBD strains are known to help with anxiety, epilepsy, chronic pain, and a variety of other conditions.

Growing Difficulty

Growing cannabis seeds isn’t as easy as throwing them in some dirt and adding water. Cultivating cannabis plants requires knowledge, practice, and the right tools.

Some cannabis seeds are easier to grow than others. If you are a beginner cannabis grower, it is important to purchase seeds that will be easy to cultivate. Look for strains with a low growing difficulty rating, especially those considered autoflowering or feminized. This will help ensure that you have successful growth.

Additionally, growing cannabis plants indoors requires different skills and tools than growing them outdoors. Make sure you know the growing environment required for each strain before making your purchase.

Is It Legal To Buy From Cannabis or Marijuana Seed Banks?

The legality of cannabis in whole plant and seed form varies greatly from country to country. Some countries with legalized hemp and cannabis programs, such as hemp and marijuana in Canada, hemp across the USA and marijuana in some states, and the Netherlands, allow the purchase and sale of cannabis seeds. Purchasing from cannabis or marijuana seed banks within these countries to grow for personal use is often considered legal.

Other countries have stricter laws and regulations surrounding cannabis, making the purchase of seeds from any type of cannabis plant illegal. If you are not sure about the legality of cannabis in your country, it is best to contact your local law enforcement or government officials for clarification.

For the benefit of their customers, most seed banks specify that their cannabis or marijuana seeds are designed for novelty purposes and are not intended to be grown into mature plants that can be harvested and cured into smokable cannabis flower. This disclaimer usually allows customers to avoid any legal issues when purchasing and growing cannabis or marijuana seeds.

For the most part, seed banks will ship internationally to countries despite the local laws. The disclaimer above ensures that the majority of packages arrive safely. For those worried about whether it’s legal to buy cannabis or marijuana seeds online to be delivered to their country, many seed banks offer stealth and discreet shipping options to help cover up the contents of the package.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Can I grow cannabis in a greenhouse?

Yes. Many growers, especially those in climates unfavorable to growing particular strains outdoors, choose to grow their plants in greenhouses. This is an excellent way to control the environment and ensure that your plants get the right amount of light, water, and nutrients.

2. What is the best way to germinate hemp or marijuana seeds?

There are many ways to germinate hemp or marijuana seeds. The most popular methods include using a wet paper towel, planting them in germination soil, or using a germination dome. Make sure you know the germination method required for the particular strain of cannabis you are growing.

3. Which grows more cannabis flower – indoor or outdoor seeds?

Typically, growing cannabis plants outdoors will produce larger yields than indoor growing. However, this can vary depending on the strain, environment, and attention to detail given to the plants.

4. What do I need to get started growing cannabis?

To get started growing cannabis, you will need a grow tent or grow room, grow light, soil, nutrients, and of course, high-quality hemp or marijuana seeds. Make sure you know the growing environment required for each strain before making your purchase.

5. What is the best way to store seeds?

The best way to store seeds is in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Make sure you keep them in an airtight container to protect them from moisture and pests.

Grow Your Own Cannabis with the Best Online Seed Banks

As the cannabis industry continues to grow, so does the availability of high-quality seeds from cannabis or marijuana seed banks. Make sure you do your research before purchasing seeds to ensure you get the best product for your needs. These five seed banks are a great place to start for new and experienced growers looking to grow some of the best cannabis strains available.

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